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RISE OF NADIR KULI               345
until it reached Hamadan, two hundred miles from the
Nadir's position must have been extremely critical
after this disaster, but he rose to the occasion, and, instead
of reproaching his soldiers, encouraged them by making
good their losses and by every other means that was
possible. So extraordinary were his personality and re-
putation that recruits flocked in from every district of
Persia, and in less than three months after his crushing
defeat he was ready once again to take the field with a
powerful and well-equipped army.
The Persian Victory over Topal Osman> A.H. 1146
(1733).—The Turkish general after gaining this splendid
victory became the victim of intrigues in Constantinople,
as the result of which both pay and reinforcements for
the army were withheld. Consequently he was in a position
of marked inferiority at the opening of the new campaign.
But he was no coward, and he sent his cavalry forward
to meet the enemy at Leilan,1 near the Tigris. As in the
previous battle, the Turks were unable to withstand the
numerically stronger Persian mounted force, but on this
occasion in their flight they swept away the infantry with
them. Topal Osman, who was carried in a litter, was
killed and the Turkish army was routed.
After wiping out his defeat by this signal victory
Nadir marched on Baghdad, but hearing of a revolt in
Fars he made peace with Ahmad Pasha. He then, by
a forced march, surprised the rebel Mohamed Khan
Baluch, who was defeated and brought as a prisoner to
Shiraz, where he committed suicide.
The Persian Victory of Baghavand^ A.H. 1148 (1735).
—The Sultan refused to ratify the treaty made by the
Governor of Baghdad, and a fresh Turkish army was
despatched under Abdulla Koprulu. Nadir immediately
besieged Tiflis, Erivan, and Ganja with the design of
forcing the Turkish leader to a general engagement.
In this he was successful, as Abdulla, quitting his
entrenched camp near Kars, advanced on Erivan at the
head of 80,000 men, and attacked the Persians, who had
1 Both these battles were fought near Karkuk.